Unix tutorial for beginners

The article about Unix tutorial for beginners. This is first session on Unix commands and it is very useful to learn core Unix.


Unix tutorial for beginners

1. Listing files and directories

ls (list)

When you first login, your current working directory is your home directory. Your home directory has the same name as your user-name and it is where your personal files and subdirectories are saved.

To find out what is in your home directory, type

% ls (short for list)

The ls command lists the contents of your current working directory.

There may be no files visible in your home directory, in that case, UNIX prompt will be returned. Alternatively, there may already be some files inserted by the System Administrator when your account was created.

ls does not cause all the files in your home directory to be listed, however only those ones whose name does not begin with a dot (.) Files beginning with a dot (.) are known as hidden files and contain important program configuration information. They are hidden because you should not change them unless you are very familiar with UNIX

To list all files in your home directory including those whose names begin with a dot, type

% ls -a

ls is an example of a command which can take options: -a is an example of an option. The options change the behavior of the command and how each option modifies the behavior of the command.

2. Making Directories

mkdir (make directory)

Now you can make a subdirectory in your home directory to hold the files you will be creating and using in the session. To make a subdirectory called unixstuff in your current working directory type

% mkdir unixstuff

To see the directory you have just created, type

% ls

3. Changing to a different directory

cd (change directory)

The command cd directory means change the current working directory to ‘directory’. The current working directory may be thought of as the directory you are in, example: your current position in the file-system tree.

To change to the directory you have just made, type

% cd unixstuff

Type ls to see the contents (which should be empty)

Soon I will publish my second session on Unix commands for fresher’s who are going to start.

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